Ecosolutionaries-Be a Part of the Solution, Not the Crisis

The Benefits of using Full Spectrum CBD Oil

The first important biological aspect to understand about Cannabis Oil before dismissing it, is to understand why it is so beneficial to human health, the human body consists of a complex endocannabinoid system. We have endocannabinoids throughout our body. The latest research has given us a more in depth understanding of the endocannabinoid system, it consists of a group of enzymes, endogenous ligands and endocannabinoid receptors, not just in the brain but also in the body. Endocannabinoids are found throughout the nervous system, the heart, the gut, liver, pancreas, skin, reproductive system, and so on. Researchers have shown that disrupted endocannabinoid signalling indicates in the body are connected to many illnesses including diabetes, hypertension, infertility, liver disease and that’s only the tip of the iceberg.

This is an area of expanding research that is so vast, scientists are only just embarking on a deeper understanding about endocannabinoids and why they are in humans and other species of animals, as they are present in all vertebrate species, (Elphick and Egertová, 2005), which was a discovery only made 35 years ago when endocannabinoids were identified in a rats brain.

Therefore, it is only in the last ten years that substantial financial investments are becoming more ubiquitous in this rapidly growing field, hundreds of thousands of dollars are being paid into scientific research on endocannabinoids and the benefits and effects of Cannabis oil on human illnesses. This has led to the strengthening of testimonials with positive results, developing within both academic science, peer reviewed journals and the growing CBD oil industry in an area of natural medicine that is finally gathering academic respect and huge momentum. We are seeing more and more people consider its medicinal benefits after trying the usual allopathic medicine route, by those who choose cannabis as a serious therapeutic treatment and by doctors and scientists.

Endocannabinoids, cannabinoid receptors (primarily CB1 and CB2), and the enzymes that synthesize and degrade endocannabinoids are involved in brain function, body function and help regulate sleep, appetite, pain and reproduction. Basically, endocannabinoids are involved in receptor activity and the regulation of every physiological function in the body. We have been shaped by plant ecology, nature and evolution, when we understand our internal ecology and connect it to our past evolution, we can use plant medicine very effectively. We have everything we need in our environment as a form of natural medicine. We have evolved with endocannabinoids in our physiological make-up because we have used marijuana plants and other medicinal plants for as long as we have existed from apes, Ramapithecus Sivapithecus, to other early Bipedal Hominids and eventually, Homo Sapiens.

The main endocannabinoid receptor, CB1, was first discovered in a rat brain in the early 1980s and is now known to be among the most abundant G protein. Since then our scientific understanding is developing much deeper. Tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), is the primary psychoactive component of the cannabis plant, and produces psychoactive effects by engaging CB1 cannabinoid receptors. Its therapeutic effects are efficacious for multiple therapeutic indications and maladies, (Dhopeshwarkar A, 2014), (Grotenhermen and Müller-Vahl, 2012; Borgelt et al., 2013).

THC and CBN are able to fit like keys into the existing network of our body’s endocannabinoid receptors. Stimulating our internal endocannabinoid system with plant-based CBD restores balance and helps benefit our system. The compounds produced inside of the body, interact with these receptors. As many say, it’s like we were made for each other. Although there exists many types of endocannabinoids, one of the most widely known and studied is N-arachidonoylethanolamine (AEA). In humans, the CB1 receptor influences memory, learning and disease states associated with CB1 receptors are observed in addiction disorders, motor dysfunction, and in bipolar depression and anxiety disorders.

Moreover, aside from the brain, CB1 receptors also function in liver and adipose tissues, vascular as well as cardiac tissue, reproductive tissues and bone. (Howlette et al, 2010). CB1 is also present in the bone marrow, bone, brain, lungs, vascular system, muscles, gastrointestinal tract, reproductive organs, immune system, liver and pancreas, CB2 is also found in the spleen, bones, skin, immune system, liver, bone marrow and pancreas.

CB2 is also noted for its analgesic effects on pain. Endocannabinoids regulate cell function and stimulate regulation of pain, anti‐excitotoxic, anti‐inflammatory, and vasodilatory effects. Analgesia, the ability to supress pain, is the main therapeutic aspects of cannabinoids that interest scientists. Cannabinoid analgesia is based on the suppression of spinal and thalamic nociceptive neurons. The chronic pain that occasionally follows peripheral nerve injury is very different from inflammatory pain and is an area of considerable unmet therapeutic need in medicine.

Due to the expansion and deepening of research in endocannabinoids, scientists are making considerable progress in understanding the role of the endocannabinoids in the regulation of pain and its therapeutic effects on healing inflammation and cancer. We now have a growing scope of research on endocannabinoid analgesics in models of both acute and clinical pain such as inflammation and painful neuropathy.

Medicine has only recently discovered lymph cells present in the brain region, connected to the spinal area, we now know that immune problems directly affect the brain region and nervous system, which is interesting when looking at the beneficial effects of CBD oil on immune protection, inflammation and pain control. The framework for such analgesic effects exists in the CB receptors, which are found in areas of the nervous system important for pain processing and in immune cells that regulate the neuro‐immune interactions which in turn mediate the inflammatory hyperalgesia, (Zogopoulos et al, 2013).

Chronic inflammation is one of the precursors of depression and using Full Spectrum CBD oil is one of the best natural medicine options to address this since the compounds help stimulate our bodies own endocannabinoids and we can feel the benefits within ten minutes or so of using the medicine.

Personally, I find full spectrum CBD oil useful for combatting acute anxiety, I have Aspergers, which means I am on the autism spectrum, consequently, I have to deal with anxiety and depression on a daily basis, which is greatly reduced when I am taking CBD oil. I also use it to treat chronic inflammation and have various health benefits. I have tried a lot of different types of full spectrum CBD oil on the market, there can be problems with finding one that is of high quality and that preserves all the beneficial compounds, therefore one of the highest quality on the expanding market which I use is  Green Organics, Heart & Body Naturals   which is one of the most transparent CBD producers in this growing field, with laboratories that are using the most up to date, state of the art extraction equipment, that ensure no moulds or bacteria contaminate their products.
Additionally, HB Naturals take great care to preserve the full benefits of the plant extract properties including- Phytocannabinoids, Chlorophyll, Terpenes, and Omega 3, 6 and 9.

HB Naturals offer strengths varying from 500 mgs   to a 1000mgs, and they are one of the few companies that offer CBD strengths as high as 2,400mg. It comes as organic full spectrum hemp extract oil in 1-ounce bottle. This bottle can last around 2-3 months depending on your health regime and personal treatment requirements, I use it daily.

How to take it

You can take it orally, or in a smoothie or juice, or by using the ancient Ayurvedic way of the Pechoti intake method, place a few drops of oil on your finger and then apply topically to the belly button. At the end of an unborn baby’s umbilical cord is the Pechoti gland, and it stays there long after birth. In Ayurvedic medicine it is believed that every human has a Pechoti gland which is connected to more than 70 million nerves, tissues, and organs throughout the human body. So if you are using CBD oil or any type of therapeutic pure oil, this is a good way to deliver the medicine to let it absorb internally.

To take it orally, you only take 2-3 drops under the tongue in the morning and at night, not only is it better for us than popping synthetic pills, but more cost efficient also, treating the root cause of the health problem. I find it is also beneficial for depression and a myriad of illnesses from cancer, epilepsy, chronic pain, multiple sclerosis, alzheimer’s and any chronic inflammation related illness.

HB Naturals also produce CBD products for treating pets. HB Naturals produce other powerful high quality herbal extract products like Black Seed oilNigella sativa is also known as black cumin seed oil. Black Seed oil has a varied spectrum of chemical composition containing phytochemicals such as thymoquinone, crystalline nigellone, antioxidants, amino acids, proteins, carbohydrates, essential fatty acids, and minerals like calcium, iron, and potassium.

Black Seed has captured the attention of scientific research because it is like a powerful natural antibiotic that is resistant to microbe superbugs. It also has powerful anti-fungal properties compound against dermatophytes, molds and yeasts, due to its phytochemicals thymohydroquinone and thymol. Thymohydroquinone has been found to be beneficial to treating Alzheimer’s disease, Autism, Glaucoma and Parkinsons.

Some researchers have suggested that the endocannabinoid system plays a crucial role in cellular homeostasis. This means that the health of this system may be directly related to the health of the rest of the body, understanding this reflects how important the internal ecology of the human body is in relation to the evolutionary relationships between ourselves and our external environment, we have evolved with medicinal plants for thousands of years and there is an ecological and physiological relationship that has evolved as a result of our interaction with herbs and natural plant medicines that are still powerful healing gifts from nature for us to use.

In the course of our development, humankind has forgotten the most obvious and fundamental aspects of taking care of the human body, which means staying connected to Nature. We have become so far removed from Nature which is why even though we have all these technological advancements in science, industry and medicine, that we have seen a sharp increase in illnesses, new pathogens and diseases, it is a result of our biophobically disconnectedness from the Earth. Returning to Natural Plant Medicine is a way of reconnecting with nature, physically, mentally and emotionally. It is crucial we begin re-establishing our relationship with healing plants to gain the benefits on our mental and physical health and to restore our spiritual connectedness and relationship with the Earth. The energetic ecology of the internal body is profoundly connected to and reflected in the energetic ecology of the Earth and Universe.

by

Carlita Shaw

References for further research

Elphick MR, Egertová M. (2005) The phylogenetic distribution and evolutionary origins of endocannabinoid signalling. Handb Exp Pharmacol 168:283–297 [PubMed]

Howlett AC, Blume LC, Dalton GD. CB(1) cannabinoid receptors and their associated proteins. Curr Med Chem. 2010;17(14):1382-93. doi: 10.2174/092986710790980023. PMID: 20166926; PMCID: PMC3179980.

Dhopeshwarkar A, Mackie K. CB2 Cannabinoid receptors as a therapeutic target-what does the future hold?. Mol Pharmacol. 2014;86(4):430–437. doi:10.1124/mol.114.094649.

Grootenhermen F, Müller-Vahl K. (2012) The therapeutic potential of cannabis and cannabinoids. Dtsch Arztebl Int 109:495–501 (PMC).

Nicholas V. DiPatrizio and Kenny J. Simansky. (24 September 2008), Activating Parabrachial Cannabinoid CB1 Receptors Selectively Stimulates Feeding of Palatable Foods in Rats.Journal of neuroscience. 28 (39) 9702-9709

Panagiotis Zogopoulos, Ioanna Vasileiou Efstratios Patsouris Stamatios E. Theocharis. (2nd January, 2013). The role of endocannabinoids in pain modulation. Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology.

Copyright Ecosequor 2020

Ecuador Sold Out to the Highest Bidders

(Photos by Luis HerRra/ChakanaNews.com )

After a state of emergency was declared in Ecuador, with two weeks of intense demonstrations in Quito, Ecuador’s capital, Ecuadorian protestors have released ten police and thirty journalists, who were reportedly taken hostage by activist groups, in the midst of violent outbreaks during demonstrations against IMF austerity pressures on the Ecuadorian government, namely the reason why oil subsidies were being withdrawn,

Before being liberated later that evening, some of the police officers were made to carry the coffin of a protestor, named Inocencio Tucumbí, whose coffin was taken to the city centre, Inocencio died after being hit by a tear gas canister fired by the police at a protest last Wednesday.

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Three other protestors have lost their lives during the protests and over 650 protestors have been arrested.

President Moreno had to move the government out of Quito to Guayaquil, Lenín Moreno has agreed to reassess the subsidies, but not necessarily repeal them.

This is not just about subsidies and the IMF, it is a reaction  to the growing awareness by the people of  Ecuador, that their country has been bought out by politicians and corporations, heavily exploited.  As a result Ecuador now carries heavy debt.

Indigenous people are tired of the exploits of oil companies continuing to ignore the laws and rights of indigenous people. For over a century, oil and mining companies continue to ignoring the rights of indigenous people, accordingto Ecuadorian law, they are  to seek prior consultation to any indigenous community that their activities may affect. They need to seek prior notice before going into an area of indigenous territory in the Amazon and exploiting the area for oil or mining. However, most oil and mining companies continue to ignore that indigenous communities exist, and  that the ancestral lands belong to in the Amazon people, not for the Ecuadorian governments to allow corporations to enter, for oil, for gold, uranium and so on, this has continued to increase intensively, without international intervention or help, similarly the same is happening in Peru and Brazil where the middle of the rain forests have seen devastating gold mining expansion over thousands of hectares of Amazon rainforest have been turned to deserts  this year .

In Ecuador, indigenous communties are strong and resistence affects the country immediately.  Unfortunately, for Moreno, he took on Ecuador after the prior president Rafael Correa left a messy legacy behind. Correa squeezed all the money he could steal, out of the Ecuadorian economy.

Download the note bonds that Correa sold out, the cause of the recent subsidy withdrawal

Rafael Correa sold Ecuador out completely just before April 2017 Elections, while he was in government, he did a lot of back handed deals, one such deal was while he was running the Yasuni campaign to keep the oil in the ground, behind closed doors, he secretly made oil deals with Chinese oil companies while pretending to the public he wanted to conserve Yasuni National Park. Promptly after Moreno was elected, Rafael Correa immediately left for Brussels.

Two years before PetroAmazonia oil bonds were sold in the New York Stock Market, Correa’s government denounced the 10 per cent in annual interest the country paid on its bonds as “usury in 2015.” So when the 51-year-old former economics professor was only willing to pay 10.5 per cent in a sale of notes back then, it raised speculation the Opec nation may be running short of cash after oil prices collapsed. Before the March 19 sale 2015, Correa told potential buyers it wanted to pay less than 8 per cent to borrow at least US$1 billion for as long as seven years. Instead, the Andean nation got just US$750 million for five years at yields that were more than two percentage points higher.  The sale “indicates that they are running into trouble,” said Sarah Glendon, an economist at Gramercy Funds Management.

Moreno and the people of Ecuador are paying this price, and Moreno is under a lot of pressure to try and find a solution to the mess. However, the ramifications are worse for the indigenous people and so as it is nearing 2020, when the debts of U.S.$315,339,980, has to be paid back at least

4.625% of notes are due by 2020, the pressure on Ecuadorian people and the government is worse than ever, what will Moreno do to compromise for the people of Ecuador? Times have already been hard on the Ecuadorian economy after Ecuador had to spend a lot of money rebuilding important infrastructure recovering from the 7.8 Earthquake in 2016.

Many indigenous people over the last three years have been greatly pressured and exploited as oil and mining activities expand an develop exponentially in the Ecuadorian Amazon. Since this means more destruction of the Amazon, to be exploited by oil companies such as Petro Amazonas and other oil companies for exploitation and drilling, as this debt needs to be paid back by next year, 2020 and these notes were borrowed on Petro Amazonas assets, one of the driving destroyers of the Ecuadorian Amazon.

 

**Update** A resolution has been reached following the Peace Talks Sunday Night. Moreno will withdraw submission to the IMF, people keep their subsidies and finances in tax and public spending will be affected instead.

How could the concept of Natural Capital help Ecuador reclaim economic autonomy?

Ecuador has more than half the world’s biodiversity found in the Amazon rainforest, in terms of Natural Capital, there is a great deal of value in the Amazon that could wipe out all of Ecuador’s world debt.

Today, biodiversity rich areas of the world are a critically endangered and a limited natural resource. We are living in the Sixth greatest mass extinction, because of our addiction to oil and wealth in terms of short term gain, this drastically affects how we manage biodiversity. It is an apocalypse happening in slow motion which affects all of the earth’s biodiversity which took 3.8 billion years of evolution to form. This extinction differs from previous extinctions, in that it is caused by humans, not by natural causes, as we are the cause, we can also slow it down or prevent it, if we make big changes. While governments are aware of this and we continue to accelerate it, each year, and this affects every single species and ecosystem on the planet, nothing is being done to protect biodiversity, instead twenty years on from my environmental science degree, it is disheartening to see environmental laws have become greately weakened as politicians are the stakeholders of lobbying corporations and are legally bribed to rewrite laws for backhanded payments. According to recent scientific data, animals and plants are disappearing at a rate of between 75 and 150 species per day. There may be no rain forest left in twenty years from now, nor fish in the ocean in ten years time and over half the world will have a water crisis, fifteen years from now. Bees are our most important crop pollinators and are fast disappearing and the rate of deforestation and ocean pollution is destroying these keystone ecosystems, which are drastically affected by man’s own actions. As most people are ecologically illiterate, we negate the goods and services and value these natural resources and the wealth they generate or the species that also contribute to the work of ecological goods and services.

Look at Africa, the natural capital if given monetary value would make it the richest country in the world in terms of natural resources. Western society must live more within our ecologically realistic limitations, consume less and live more sustainably. We agree that predatory capitalism equals exploitation, and thrives from growing centralized power structures. This is part of its subjective characteristics and results in a few countries having more power, wealth and opportunities than the rest of the world, which is the cancer of this growing disparity between the first world nations and ”third world nations”, which were originally ancient first world superpowers in the story of ancient history.

Natural Capital is a concept that was explored nearly 20 years ago now, pilot projects have been quietly funded by the United Nations to see how we can value nature and biodiversity for policy makers. The World Resource Institute (WRI) estimates the value of ecosystem services to be US $33 trillion a year, nearly twice the value of the global gross national product (GNP) of US $18 trillion. The US is also in debt by 17 trillion dollars, if the US switched to an economy based on natural capital, the financial value tied up in its natural capital would take care of this debt. In the same way that a banknote is a promissory note against the gold or silver that has been deposited in the bank, ecological economists are seeing how we can start to put the same value onto ecosystems and the role of species in ecosystem production; another example would be the 80 percent of oxygen generated by algae and microbial activity in the oceans. Hypothetically, the value of the work done in existing ecosystems could regenerate local economies and increase the wealth and monetary value of nature globally, simply by ensuring its conservation and existence by using initiatives similar to the TEEB Economic of Ecosystems and Biodiversity model if we took it to a community level to decentralize governmental powers and management of our natural resources.

Nature’s ecological banking system could be a way to revolutionise our world and local economies and transfer wealth from an oil-based economy to an ecology-based economy, this wealth would provide poor countries with enough ecological economy that global debt would become a thing of the past. This starts on a local level, worldwide, which would regenerate and allow local communities to have better control over their own natural resources, protecting and managing them from over-exploitation of previously decentralised management of resources, which could be prevented, if corporate social responsibility pays a tax to the natural capital destroyed and when more is taken out of the ecosystems and Natural Capital, than is put into them, this crucially needs to be taken into account in order to gain more balance.

In terms of flipping this over to give people power instead of governments, we could make local land trusts run by the local communities which protect thousands of hectares of rain forest for the future preservation of biodiversity and translate the value to cryptocurrency rather than fiat, which is centralized and controlled by governments, whereas cryptocurrency is not. Ecuador, Peru, Brazil,Bolivia, Venezuela and Colombia would be infinitely more wealthy because these countries are where the Amazon basin covers. If we put a value on just one hectare of the Amazon for the biodiversity it holds, or for the oxygen and clean water it produces, or for

Here we provide further steps towards sustainability and increasing power to local communities and protect nature from centralized predatory capitalism exploits:

1. Decentralisation of power in cities and governments, to smaller towns and villages, for local communities to have more say in governance of local resources instead of foreign governments.

2. Improve infrastructures in rural areas for solar and wind technology for self sustainable towns and greener cities, strengthening local infrastructures for alternative fuel systems to make the transition from oil easier, such as make hydrogen fuel cell refuelling stations, along with electric cars more available in every town and city and alternative energy resources for off the grid power generators.

3. Ideally, (because this won’t happen in real world politics), Western governments that currently have central power would return the rights for developing countries the access to manage their own land and natural resources which would remedy starvation, put a stop to corporate land grabs and create a more sustainably balanced structure that is not centralised or controlled by corporations and politicians of the Western World.

4. This is a hard one since those who have the power prefer to keep countries in debt, especially to exploit their resources. -Abolish “third world debt” based on unrealistic inflation agendas for the world powers to control natural resources in ‘poorer’ foreign countries that are actually ‘richer’ in rare minerals and natural resources than most Western countries, we will see how in further paragraphs the Natural Economy in terms of goods and services and biodiversity, can turn the poorest nations into the richest over night and would be used to wipe world debt.

5. Environmental laws need to make corporate exploitations of foreign natural resources a crime, more stringent environmental laws are necessary and no more erosion of these laws by politicians who are corporate pimps bribed to rewrite laws for corporate agendas. Western corporations need to abolish privatisation of water, and land resources in “third world countries”.

6. Return land rights to rural community agriculturalists in developing countries, and locally supporting sustainable agriculture. With localised sustainable farming, there would be an equal distribution of food and grain and where there is poor soil quality implementation of soil restoration projects .

The current global conflicts, we see emerging in both the ecological and economic crisis, is a sign that we need to re-evaluate the global economy that has been built on short-term gain and erroneous decisions of greedy politicians and their corporate partners, with no acknowledgement or regard for nature’s capital, invisible goods, services and production that everyone takes for granted. This completely disregards nature’s capital value. Our view of nature is to see ourselves as separate and above it, a western view that is so engrained in our perception of the world, we don’t think twice about our wasteful consumerist culture. We could start exploring new ways of seeing nature as a valuable investment we need to protect, to preserve biodiversity and the natural balance of ecosystems for the future of humanity.

By Carlita Shaw

References

Financial Collapse and Natural Capital

Chakanaka News.com

BBC news 

Illegal Gold Mining in the Amazon, destroying the Brazilian rainforest in just 7 months.

The indigenous lands of Kayapó, in Pará, house mining fronts with an area equivalent to dozens of soccer fields. Photo from Planet Labs

A significant expansion of illegal Gold mining outbreaks in Amazonian indigenous lands is destroying the rainforest at an accelerated rate in Brazil, which began to emerge since January of this year. This is confirmed by the satellite images analysed by BBC News Brazil.

The indigenous and environmentalists are critically concerned with this development  occurring  in different parts in the states of Pará and Roraima, in the north of Brazil, the mining activity has increased since the public statements and hate speech of President Jair Bolsonaro against indigenous people and in favour of the exploitation of minerals in indigenous lands and what they consider a weakening in the fight against environmental crimes by the government.

The mining invasion of one of these reserves in the Amazon has also resulted in a murdered indigenous leader of the Wajãpi tribe , which occurred following a plea for help from the leader, that miners had entered their territory with guns and weapons.

The Wajãpi indigenous community who reside in the west of the state of Amapá, reported  last Saturday that a group of miners assassinated Emyra Wajãpi  last wednesday. The indigenous leader, Wajãpi ´s death was the beginning of an attack to the Mariry village that took place between Friday and Sunday with the invasion of 50 gold seekers to the place.

The Coordination of the indigenous Organizations of the Brazilian Amazon (COIAB) issued a statement condemning the invasions and showing their solidarity with the Wajãpi people.

“The Coordination of the indigenous Organizations of the Brazilian Amazon (COIAB), together with its base organizations on a state, regional and local level, mainly with the APOINAP (Articulation of Indigenous Peoples and Amapá and Northern Pará Organizations), are here to express publicly their complete solidarity and support for the Waiãpi indigenous people, in lieu of the recent events in which metal seekers invaded their territory, while we express our deep and vehement repulsion towards this kind of action, that has intensified itself, fomented mainly by intransigent and irresponsible, authoritarian, judgemental, arrogant and disrespectful positions of the current government, especially from the president of the republic Jair Bolsonaro, for the attacks he has been making against the rights of the people of this country, especially the territorial rights already guaranteed in completely demarcated and regularized indigenous lands in light of the Constitution of the Federal Government of 1988 and which this government is constantly trying to set back.”  – Reported to Latin American News

Opening these ancestral protected lands to mining and other extraction industries such as oil and gas drilling have devastating consequences for indigenous communities and irreversible ecological devastation such as mercury poisoning of the Amazon waterways which people use to fish and bath in.

Previous affected indigenous people were also the Yamomami people in on-going illegal gold extraction in 2013 and before.

The deforestation of the Amazon has accelerated with the arrival of Bolsonaro to the presidency of Brazil, since the president has been encouraging racial discrimination and persecution of indigenous people in the Amazon whose lives  and ancestral lands are being destroyed and  threatened by mining and oil extraction.

The mine outbreak occurred at a time when the National Space Research Institute (INPE) has claimed that there is a high rate of destruction in the Amazon, which has been questioned by President Bolsonaro, who said the publication of data on deforestation could affect the country’s international negotiations.

The images evaluated by the BBC are from Planet Labs , an American company that orbits more than 100 satellites and takes daily photographs of the world.

Illegal gold mining in the Indigenous Land Kayapó, Pará, in July 2019. The clearest points indicate recent activity.

The activity was monitored in three of the Brazilian indigenous lands that suffer the most illegal gold extraction: Kayapó, Munduruku (both in Pará) and Yanomami (in Roraima and Amazonas). The three territories occupy an area equivalent to that of the state of São Paulo and house some of the most conserved sections of the Brazilian Amazon.

In three Brazilian Amazon territories, there was an increase in these areas of mining extraction to reopen old mines, some created more than a decade ago – and in those created more recently.

The satelite photographs were sent to two satellite imagery specialists: to geologist Carlos Souza Jr. of Imazon (a non-profit organization dedicated to the conservation of the Amazon rainforest); and to the geographer of the business intelligence software Arcplan, Marcos Reis Rosa.

Both confirmed that the mines are expanding their gold extraction activities. Some are even occupying areas the size of dozens of soccer fields.

Gold in Yanomami

In June, the BBC published a report that showed that in 2019, gold became the second most exported product in the Roraima area , although none of the mines  operate legally.

Officials are investigating whether the metal has been illegally extracted from the territory in Yanomami, where, according to the natives, at least 10, 000 miners are currently operating.

The executive coordinator of the Association of Indigenous Peoples of Brazil (Apib), Sonia Guajajara , says that indigenous people from different parts of the Amazon have reported “an absurd increase” in mining companies since the beginning of the Bolsonaro government, this is due to Bolsonaro´s hate speech against indigenous people and encouragement of mining in these areas, desperation is increasing as Brazil on the verge of recession.

 While Bolsonaro served as a federal deputy and, later in his presidential career, he repeatedly said he agreed with the economic exploitation of these territories to improve the living conditions of indigenous communities, but this doesn´t improve their lives or living standards, their land is illegally taken from them and their Amazon waterways  and fish are killed and polluted with mercury and other toxic poisons.

The 1988 Constitution provides for the exploitation of minerals in indigenous lands as long as it is regulated. But as laws in this field have never been passed, the activities are continuously illegal.

Since 1996 , Congress has tried to pass a bill to regulate mining in indigenous lands. Now, the Bolsonaro government is trying to unlock the agenda.

“Bolsonaro is making Brazil the exterminator of the environmental future”: the harsh message of 8 former Brazilian environment ministers

However, according to Sonia Guajajara, the vast majority of Brazilian indigenous communities oppose the regulation of the activity because they fear their social and environmental impacts.

At the end of 2018, Amazon’s geo-referenced socio-environmental information network – which brings together eight environmental NGOs from Latin America – published a report on threats to the Amazon. The document identified illegal mining on 18 indigenous lands in Brazil. There is also a prior report written by Jasmine Plummer investigating the environmental laws on this activity and how it affects the   from 2007

In some territories, rafts are installed on the Amazon riverways, to look for precious metals in the riverbed. In addition to the rafts, industrial machinery such as backhoes and dredgers form Deforested craters in the forest. This is the case of many of the mines in the Tapajós de Pará region , where satellite images exhibit important “scars” open in the forest.

In addition to logging, the activity causes sedimentation of rivers , diverting their courses and creating artificial lakes that become breeding grounds for mosquitoes. Not by chance, malaria is common in the mining areas of the Amazon.

In some areas the damage is permanent, with no possibility of complete regeneration.

“Scars” caused by the extraction of gold in the Tapajós de Pará region, in an image taken in July 2019.

Gold mining is also associated with an increase in conflict, increasing human trafficking, prostitution and disease in the indigenous areas where it operates.

For forest engineer Paulo Barreto, an associate researcher at Imazon, deforestation in the Amazon has been stimulated not only by Bolsonaro’s statements, but also by the weakening of regulatory environmental agencies.

“It has created a climate where everything  and anything goes, and people think it will not be punished,” Barreto told the BBC.

By order of Environment Minister Ricardo Salles, the annual budget of Ibama, the main federal environmental agency, was reduced by US $ 23.57 million this year, a quarter of the total.

Meanwhile, destruction of the Brazilian Amazon has doubled in just a few years from  7%, in 2008, to 13%, in 2017. Data released in 2018 by the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais – INPE (National Institute of Spatial Research) 

The indigenous lands of Kayapó, in Pará, have mining activities which have destroyed with an area equivalent to dozens of football fields.

This week President Bolsonaro was again criticized by environmentalists. After the president insisted that deforestation figures released by the National Space Research Institute (INPE) were a lie and could hamper Brazil’s negotiations with other countries, such as those related to the trade agreement between Mercosur and the European Union .

European leaders have expressed concern about the increase in deforestation in Brazil and Bolsonaro’s actions in the environmental sector.

In April, a letter published in the journal Nature signed by 607 scientists and two indigenous organizations criticized the Bolsonaro government for “working to dismantle deforestation policies.”

The signatories of the document denounce that “the new administration of Brazil threatens indigenous rights and natural areas.”

In the words of the Yanomami’s foremost
shaman-activist, Davi Kopenawa Yanomami-

The Earth cannot be split apart as if the forest were just a leftover part. With leftover trees and leftover rivers, leftover game, fish and humans who live there, its breath of life will become too short. That is why we are worried. We shamans simply say we are protecting nature as a whole thing. We defend the forests’ trees, mountains and rivers, its fish, game, spirits and human inhabitants.

by Carlita Shaw

Using Carbon Dioxide to Produce Graphene, An Innovative Alternative Energy material

Graphene can act as an insulator and superconductor.

It is a general consensus that carbon dioxide is considered to be adding to greenhouse gases and its global warming effect. However, for chemical reactions, carbon dioxide can also be a helpful raw material.

Carbon dioxide is significant for chemical reactions, a scientific research group has now announced at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), on this phenomenon and how it could be applied in a way to increase the development of an essential material that could revolutionise clean alternative energy harnessing, with Carbon dioxide. They discovered they could utilise carbon dioxide as a raw material to produce graphene, a technological material which is currently the subject of intense study.

Back in 2011, Justin Hall-Tipping was the first scientific pioneer to use graphene in Nano Solar energy, which was a huge innovation in nanotechnology, that few people still have not heard much about today. This technology will put an end to nuclear and coal power stations. Tippin and his group of nano-tech and solar energy scientists produced a clear film of transparent plastic, that you can stick to your window, turning a window of any building into a an electricity generator or a modern power station to produce all your power needs or send others energy if they need it.

The entrepreneur, Justin Hall-Tipping, sought out the world’s leading nanotechnology scientists to harness the electron and create energy through nanotechnology, now they have a company called Nanoholdings, which consists of team of scientists, investors and innovators working at the cutting-edge of nanotechnology to develop solutions to the world’s growing energy problems. Working in partnership with the world’s best universities, they have developed products and companies that will revolutionise the way we use and generate energy. Imagine you live in a building that has very large windows, you can use each window much like a solar panel, simply by using a thin plastic film with energy harnessing systems, embedded inside the film as fine or finer than a human hair, the plastic sheet can be stuck onto the window panes of a house or office building to use the light and heat energy beaming in through the window. This becomes a powerhouse using nanotechnology to convert light energy from the sun to power up the building for heat or to cool or generate electricity and if it is not required there, it can then be sent to someone else who needs it more.


(Hall-Tipping, 2011).

Now this new discovery about graphene announced at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), on using Carbon dioxide to produce graphene, adds even more exciting developments to the nanotechnology exotic altenative energy possibilities of the future of free energy.

The current archaic combustion of fossil fuels, includes coal and oil which emit large quantities of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and even more so when the oil or gas has been drilled from the Amazon rainforest. Every day, destruction of vast areas of rainforest is at a critical scale, the trees and disturbed soil, where the carbon dioxide had been naturally sequestered, (acted as a carbon sink before being disturbed), are then released into the atmosphere. Cutting this causal chain is what motivates Kit scientists to search for the opportunity of producing electricity from graphene, but additionally for alternative uses of carbon dioxide. One opportunity could be to look at carbon dioxide as a valuable resource for the synthesis of other precious elements, sequestering it back to the natural cycle, the result would not only clean up the planet, but also provide cleaner energy materials and off grid resources.

An example can be found in nature. During photosynthesis in the leaves of plants, the combination of light, water and carbon dioxide creates biomass, closing the natural material cycle. In this process, it is the job of the metal-based enzyme RuBisCo to absorb the carbon dioxide from the air and make it usable for the further chemical reactions in the plant. Inspired by this metal enzyme-based natural conversion, researchers at KIT are now presenting a process in which the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide together with hydrogen gas is converted directly into graphene at temperatures of up to 1000 degrees Celsius with the help of specially prepared, catalytically active metal surfaces.

The team of scientists were inspired by a metal enzyme-based natural conversion, therefore they are actually presenting a system wherein the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide together with hydrogen gas is converted at once into graphene at temperatures of up to 1000 degrees Celsius, with the assist of specifically prepared, catalytically active metallic surfaces. This innovation was drawn from the role it has in photosynthesis in plants, the combination of water, sunlight and carbon dioxide creates biomass, the metalic-based enzyme RuBisCo can soak up the carbon dioxide from the air and make it usable for more chemical reactions in the plant.

Graphene is the two-dimensional form of the chemical element carbon, and as mentioned earlier has been used in nanotechnology to enhance solar energy cells to be able to harness energy through a transparent plastic film. Graphene has been used in a number of alternative energy generators and is known to have interesting electrical properties and is therefore an choice for innovative off-grid clean alternative energy generators, likely to be met with the same counterpressures as other alternative generators however the difference is this is nanotechnology, this industry has been growing rapidly and there is a great deal of money in this system, It is unlikely this innovation can be derailed in the same way other forms have. Its discovery and workability in 2004 brought about international, intensive studies and earned the discoverers, Andre Geim and Konstanin Novoselov, received the Nobel Prize for Physics in 2010.

The Scientific workgroup at Kit have join forces to publish and present the technique within the ChemSusChem journal for setting apart graphene from carbon dioxide and hydrogen by way of a metal catalyst. “If the metal surface exhibits the correct ratio of copper and palladium, the conversion of carbon dioxide to graphene will take place directly in a simple one-step process,” explains the head of the study, Professor Mario Ruben, from the Molekulare Materialien working group at the Institute of Nanotechnology (INT) and the Institute for Inorganic Chemistry (AOC) at KIT.

In other developments with graphene, the research group have been even capable of produce graphene several layers thick, which might be exciting for feasible programs in batteries, digital compounds, or filtering compounds. Following research is to form functioning energy components from the graphene. Carbon based materials such as graphene and magnetic molecules could be the constructing blocks for future quantum computers along with other possibilities. Therefore, using Carbon Dioxide to produce Graphene, could develop exotic nanotechnologies even more as a driver for graphene based electrity generators in alternative energy and help restore climate balance at the same time,. The days of the coal or nuclear power stations are numbered as graphene and nanotechnologies are developing.

Written by Carlita Shaw
Author of The Silent Ecocide

You can also follow my ecological projects and articles on Ecosolutionaries at Steemit.

Thanks

Original Press Release at Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT).
Source: http://www.kit.edu/index.php

Journal Reference:

Concepción Molina‐Jirón, Mohammed Reda Chellali, C. N. Shyam Kumar, Christian Kübel, Leonardo Velasco, Horst Hahn, Eufemio Moreno‐Pineda, Mario Ruben. Direct Conversion of CO 2 to Multi‐Layer Graphene using Cu–Pd Alloys. ChemSusChem, 2019; DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201901404

Image source- pubs.rsc.org

Margoth, Amparo and Amada, three brave women that defend the Pueblos Indígenas and the Amazon Rainforest.

Learn the story of Margoth, Amparo and Amada, three brave women that defend the Pueblos Indígenas and the Amazon Rainforest.

Please sign the petition for better protection of these brave environmental defenders  https://bit.ly/2ZPLvDh

Ecuador: In the absence of protection from the State, Amazónian women risk their lives to defend the Rainforest

The lack of capacity and political will of the Ecuadorian authorities to guarantee protection and adequately and effectively investigate attacks and threats against Amazonian Women defenders of the environment which puts their lives at risk, and those of other people who protect the Amazon against political and economic interests linked to large-scale extractive projects in indigenous territories, said Amnesty International in a new report published today.

“They will not stop us” : The Ecuadorian government fails justice and protection for Amazonian women defenders of land, territory and environment, which exposes the failures of the Ecuadorian Attorney General’s Office in response to a series of attacks and death threats registered in 2018 against Patricia Gualinga, Nema Grefa, Salomé Aranda and Margoth Escobar. The four women are members of the Mujeres Amazónicas collective, made up of dozens of indigenous women from Ecuador who defend the environment in the Amazon and the rights of indigenous peoples.

The work of people who defend the environment, such as the Amazonian Women and other organizations of the indigenous peoples, is urgent and necessary in Ecuador and in the whole world, before the increasingly evident impacts of the global environmental crisis.

“Despite the promises made by the government of President Moreno, the lack of political will to seriously investigate the attacks against human rights defenders and to give them adequate protection sends a clear message to society: that these crimes are tolerated in Ecuador. This is unacceptable, “said Erika Guevara Rosas, Americas director for Amnesty International.

The lines of investigation and the protection measures that the Ecuadorian authorities have offered to the victims seem to ignore possible motives of the attacks linked to their challenge to large-scale economic interests and to traditional gender roles, through their role as indigenous leaders. and human rights defenders.

“This attack is retaliation for my struggle to defend life and our territories against the threat of oil exploitation,” said Salome Aranda, after several strangers threatened and attacked her and her family with stones while they were at home in May 2018.

The Amazonian Women point out that the authorities in charge of investigating do not collect or analyze critical evidence in time, which could even help identify those responsible for the attacks against them. Faced with these failures, the defenders end up in practice assuming the burden of the investigation.

”We are united and we will continue in our fight for the defense of Mother Earth.”-
Patricia Gualinga, Amazonian Woman defender.

The Amazonian Women also criticize that the protection measures that they have offered are inadequate and insufficient in the face of the particular needs and the exceptional risks they face every day.

Regardless of the possible causes of these failures, their consequences on the lives of human rights and environmental defenders in Ecuador are clear and concrete. In a country where attacks against them are not punished and authorities do not assume their responsibility to guarantee their safety, many people face the permanent dilemma of risking their lives and that of their families to defend human rights and nature. .

“President Lenin Moreno and the new Attorney General, Diana Salazar, have in their hands the opportunity to put an end to this grave situation and guarantee justice and protection for the Amazonian Women and any person who defends human rights in Ecuador. For this, they must implement a national protection policy and a protocol to investigate crimes against them, “said Erika Guevara Rosas.

Despite impunity and lack of protection, Patricia Gualinga says they will not surrender: “We are united and we will continue in our fight for the defense of Mother Earth.”

by Carlita Shaw

The Silent Ecocide

#SaveTheAmazon #Valiente 👉 https://t.co/QFk98tuGcYExige a la Fiscal de Ecuador que actúe para la protección de las Mujeres Defensoras de la Amazonía firmando está petición: https://bit.ly/2ZPLvDh

Our Appetite for State of the Art technology is causing Ecocide, but most people are more concerned about the extinction of the cell phone instead

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Illustration by Pawel Kuczynski

Gluttony for new technology is feeding African slavery and causing extinction of rare natural elements, a  heavier price for our insatiable consumer paradise, if we buy a new cell phone device or a laptop, we are part of this destructive predator named Capitalism, the beast of ‘First World Nations’ that is driving ecocide and modern slavery.  The predator that we feed, leaves behind a trail of destructive footprints across the planet, wherever it treads to extract and deplete, natural resources. The frightening thing is, no where on Earth is left sacred, protected or untouched any more, because Corporations are able to lobby, (legally bribe) politicians to rewrite environmental laws or any law that allows corporations to access minerals, oil, gas or any other biological resource, even in the most protected national parks, environmental laws have dwindled dramatically over the last forty years. All species, all ecosystems, all natural resources are dwindling at an exponential rate, as a result of this predatory insatiable appetite.

Every day, we dispose of over 416,000 mobile devices and 142,000 computers usually disposing of them in landfills and incinerators, where as a tiny portion are recycled, stated in a recent EPA survey. A BBC Panorama program said that every year 20 to 50 million tons of e-waste is generated worldwide.

Another EPA report reveals that by recycling one million cell phones, we can recover more than 20,000 lbs of copper, 20 lbs of palladium, 550 lbs of silver, and 50 lbs of gold. Then there are these other rare elements below that will soon be extinct, if we were able to recycle computers and cell phones without worrying about license laws, but with the care of the planetary resources in mind, we could millions of tons of reduce electronic waste each year and salvage rare elements that are becoming seriously depleted.

Diagram shows the scarcity of the elements. A new periodic table sizes the boxes for each element based on their relative abundance.  Credit: EuChemS/CC BY-ND

Our over-reliance on renewing our technological devices, is driving this unfolding ecocide, the consumerism of electrical goods such as ipads, tablets and android phones. All of these electrical devices rely on a highly unethical mining industry that uses slave labour to mine and assemble electrical products in inhumane conditions; in addition to driving the destruction of the last cloud forests home of the highly endangered Silverback Gorilla populations in Africa. This is well illustrated by the story of the Silverback Gorillas in the African Congo.

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The mining of Gold, Diamonds and Coltan, (Ta on the Periodic table-geological name – Columbite Tantalite), a mineral used in the microchips of every single new electronic device, cell phone or tablet and laptop, comes from the African Congo, in the Virungas National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The African Congo has a small area of biodiverse cloud forest ecosystem, where a small group of the world’s last pocket of remaining Silverback Gorillas which lend thanks to the work of Dian Fossey who was murdered on December the 26th 1985,  her work was to preserve and protect these primates, which are critically threatened with extinction from poaching and a continually eroded habitat due to these existing ‘Conflict Minerals’ being extracted in the area.  Including the mineral Coltan used for microchips,  the western greed for constantly renewing cell phones and laptops, is responsible for  this plundering. Other rare elements such as Indium are also depleting for the same reason –

Devices like computers and smartphones. Indium, for example, is a silvery metal used to create touch screens for phones and computers. According to Cole-Hamilton, the world’s indium supply is “extremely thinly spread” across the planet and could soon dry up if we continue chucking out our old devices every few years”-LiveScience

According the the European EuChemS new Periodic table on the rarest elements,  Coltan Ta is under serious threat of disappearing within the next hundred years. Coltan Tantalite is used primarily for the production of tantalum capacitors, used in every kind of electronic devices such as mobile phones.

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Niobium and Coltan Tantalum have a wide range of uses, including refractive lenses for glasses, cameras, phones and printers. They are also used in semiconductor circuits, and capacitors for small electronic devices such as hearing aids, pacemakers, and mp3 players, as well as in computer hard drives, automobile electronics, and surface acoustic wave (SAW) filters for mobile phones. Coltan is also used to make high-temperature alloys for jet engines and other engine  turbines.

Coltan can only be found in a few places in the world, one of which is in Australia, which was the world’s largest producer at Wodinga Tantalum mine in Western Australia, however they closed their mine in 2012 because it is cheaper to mine Coltan using child and adult slave labour in inhumane conditions in Africa’s Democratic Republic of Congo and exposing these working communities to toxic chemicals. To make matters worse for the Silverback Gorillas, the SOCO International energy company are pushing to extract gas and oil reserves from under Lake Edward in the National Park. All this, at the cost of one of the last greatest African forests and majestic Gorillas which have only been given an estimated 15 years of survival amidst the adversities they face through our lack of global responsibility to better manage conservation of critically endangered species, because minerals, gold, diamonds and oil are far more important to the world than saving the Silverback Gorillas and their forest home.

The fact that global mining companies can cut corners to make a bigger profit at the expense of an entire endangered species such as the Mountain Gorilla and at the expense of hard working African miners, who are exploited slave labourers,
shows that international environmental and human rights laws are far too flimsy and ineffective.

However, the Western world conveniently lacks humanitarian and environmental ethics in business, which in turn perpetuates slavery, species extinction and ecocide. This has come so far as corporations suing and imprisoning entrepreneurs and innovators whose mere crime is to combat human waste and planned obsolescence to attempt to create sustainable solutions.

uploadscardimage776432e2c49274-e60e-4f24-bfec-9529c7a0e44d.jpg950x534__filtersquality90Eric  Lundgren, ecological entrepreneur was imprisoned for recycling computer circuit boards into reusable computers.         Image credit-David Sprague

Eric  Lundgren,  a 33 year old e-waste entrepreneur, from Los Angeles, United States, was imprisoned in 2018 for his success in a business which achieved  recycling  of 41 million pounds of e-waste each year from major corporations such as IBM and Sprint.

Microsoft took Eric Lundgren to court where he was then served a sentence of 15 months in prison and had to pay a $50,000 fine on April the 11th 2018. Microsoft’s argument was that Lundgren could potentially damage their future sales of new computers and new software licenses, the court  ruled in favour of Microsoft saying that he had infringed on Microsoft Corp. to the sum of $700,000.

Lundgren pleaded guilty, but he stated that the value of his discs to Microsoft was zero, as Microsoft, nor any computer manufacturers, sell them. He also explained that the discs could only be used to restore the software to computers already licensed for it. The licenses are good for the life of the computer.

Right-to-repair activists want legislation to remove the manufacturing and legal barriers that make it harder for consumers to fix their stuff. When people buy used devices and keep those devices working longer, fewer natural resources are needed for manufacturing and less e-waste ends up in landfills.

Planned Obsolescence needs to be revealed for what it is. People need to wake up to the damage corporations and consumers are causing to the environment and the perpetuation of slave labour, habitat destruction for mining and as a result species extinction.

 

by Carlita Shaw

The Silent Ecocide

Machiavellian tactics- Always about the Oil

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First this year, the US Sanctions were on Gold in Venezuela, amid the financial and humanitarian crisis, where Venezuelans have been forced to flee the country for years without international help or intervention after financial and governmental collapse. Now, the US is stepping in, starting with sanctions on gold and this week, US sanctions are on oil and finally, de-recognition of Maduro as president and   Trump’s coronation of Guaido as Venezuelan president – Al Capone redux .

This is a geopolitical tactical move that will also affect China, Venezuela has for decades been the largest exporter of oil even though it’s a small country in South America. One of the reasons the US has wanted to see its downfall in addition to co-opting its demise as with interfering with many Central and South American coops on a Machiavellian level, with the geopolitical strategies in place, US military base in Haiti, Mexican Gulf polluted and transformed into an industrial oil zone since the Mexican Gulf oil spill, US occupation of the oceans and Oil industry is present all the way down to Venezuela, possibly to hit China where it hurts cutting off China to Venezuelan Oil supplies will hit China very hard, as its biggest oil supplier has been Venezuela.

US control of Venezuela is intrinsic in the elite power games between the West and the East. The US wants to make sure China doesn’t overtake US power by 2025, which is predicted already by financial experts who say that China will become the global superpower if not soon at the latest by 2040 according to financial experts in Forbes, and the US will lose power since most of its finances has gone into military investments and it carries a huge debt in trillions. There are always years of geopolitical strategies involved in the crisis of any country, its not just by accident these things happen with planning and social engineering many decades and even a century in advance, hence predictive programming working so well.

Carlita Shaw

The Silent Ecocide