The equivalent of 987,500 football fields of Amazon Rainforest have been destroyed over the last few years in Brazil

 

Isolated Amazon indigenous people. Photo taken by author.

60 million to 200 million indigenous people are almost wholly dependent on forests, these indigenous forest communities live in the world’s last remaining forests which are critically endangered as the equivalent of 987,500 football fields of Amazon Rainforest have been destroyed over the last few years in Brazil.

These indigenous forest communities are facing ecocide and they are key to the protection of the Amazon rainforest and climate balance. There are at least 80 indigenous tribes in the Amazon rainforest still living in complete isolation from the outside world. Human contact would be detrimental to their very existence, they are the most vulnerable communities since they have no resistance to disease and would be wiped out upon first contact with people from the outside world. We must respect their way of life and leave them in peace and protect them from gold and oil miners.

The Rights and Resources Initiative (RRI), Woods Hole Research Center (WHRC) and WRI  Report found that Indigenous Peoples and local forest communities manage at least 54,546 million metric tons of carbon (Mt C) in the tropical forests they live in globally, or just under one-quarter of the total carbon found above ground in the global tropics.

Indigenous Peoples and local communities manage at least 24 percent of the total carbon stored aboveground in the world’s tropical forests, or 54,546 million metric tons
of carbon (MtC), a sum greater than 250 times the amount of carbon dioxide emitted by global air travel.

There is a deeply intrinsic relationship between the health of the Amazon rainforest and the health of the planet. Rainforests  contain 90-140 billion metric tons of carbon, not just in the tree trunks but also stored in the soil below, this helps stabilise local and global climate. Deforestation, oil extraction and mining activities releases significant amounts of this locked carbon, which is having catastrophic consequences on the climate around the world.

The Rights and Resources Initiative offers Amazon forest and global governments to consider  improving protection of deforestation and forest degradation pressures, to enhance local livelihoods, tropical country governments and the international community should:

• Support the efforts of forest peoples’ organisations to document and secure their collective forest
rights by scaling up dedicated funding streams and technical assistance;

• Make Indigenous Peoples and local communities part of the climate solution by incorporating
community-based actions in Nationally Determined Contributions;

• Develop/adopt institutional safeguards that significantly increase the voice and contributions of
forest peoples in the design and implementation priority actions to conserve/enhance forest carbon stocks and non-carbon benefits.

The Amazon rainforest is the worlds largest biodiversity rich biome containing more than half the worlds 10 million animal and plant species, with green capital preservation we can emphasize the immense value of the rainforest and its contribution to the planet.

The Amazon rainforest contains:

One in ten known species on Earth
1.4 billion acres of dense forests, half of the planet’s remaining tropical forests.
4,100 miles of winding fresh water rivers.
2.6 million square miles in the Amazon basin, about 40 percent of South America.

We are at a critical time where global governments, rainforest conservation groups and non-governmental organisations need to reinforce protection of environmental laws for Indigenous people’s defence treaties for the last remaining Amazon rainforests on the Earth.  After spending fifteen years working on conservation projects  with indigenous people in the Amazon, their challenges involve dealing with many front line issues that the largest established charities, governments and academic institutes know very little about. One common example in the Amazonia regions of South America, is the ongoing internalised governmental corruption where some government affiliated corporations provide finances and arms to military and vigilante groups to attack and continually persecute indigenous environmental activist leaders and to drive indigenous people forcefully off of their land.  This is why there is an exponential rise of murders of Indigenous environmental activists every year.

One such story I learned in 2012 at Shell airport waiting to fly deep into the Amazon, here I met with Cristina Gualinga. Cristina is from the Kichwar Sarayaku territory in the Ecuadorian Amazon. The Sarayaku community were subject to violent force to remove them from their ancestral land by illegal invasion of oil companies and their government sponsored military soldiers. Cristina Gualinga and many in her Sarayaku community are life long activists against oil exploitation, after they were subject to brutal expulsion from their territory and Cristina witnessed systematic destruction of her ancestral lands for an oil pipeline, there is a documentary about the Sarayaku’s experience called The Children of the Jaguar.

Governments who are included in the Amazon Basin region countries must collaborate with international conservation organisations and governments from all global countries to step up protection through reinforcement of environmental laws and indigenous peoples rights and powers to indigenous leaders of key communities who are our environmental protectors of the Amazon.

The international governments have a responsibility to the conservation of the planet and especially the Amazon rainforest  and should be providing reinforced prosecution for indigenous communities threatened by oil extraction, hydrodam building or gold mining and every other activity that is rapidly causing ecocide in the Amazon rainforest.

The above map shows the amount of industrial activity in the Amazon and the red crosses show the amount of indigenous people assassinated due to conflicts over rainforest that they are fighting to protect.

Between August 2017 and July 2018 some 7,900 square kilometres of forest were logged in the Brazilian Amazon. In addition to the ongoing illegal logging and goldmines, in 2019  over 7,200 square miles of the Brazilian rainforest  burned—an aggregated area nearly the size of New Jersey. The worst annual rate of deforestation in a decade, according to official government data. This represents an increase of 14 percent over the same period last year.

Greenpeace Brazil pointed out, approximately 1,185 million trees were felled in an area equivalent to the size of 987,500 football fields.

The above graph from Global Witness report ”At What Cost” shows Brazil has the highest rate of environmental defenders being killed than any other country in the world.

Meanwhile, Jair Bolsonaro ignores invitations towards implementing and reinforcing conservation action by other Amazon countries and he encourages persecution of indigenous people, conveniently overlooking the continued murders of Amazon protectors and environmental campaigners, further accelerating the destruction of the Brazilian Amazon, last year many of the raging fires which raged through the Brazilian Amazon were a result of arson as a preliminary measure to clear forest for oil drilling and illegal gold mining in indigenous territories that should be protected areas of the Amazon. Bolsonaro has publicly declared his hatred of indigenous communities, specifically the Kawahivas people who are on the edge of extinction, his promise to corporate interests are to continue to open more the Amazon to the development of the mining and  timber industries.

Global Witness’s latest annual data into violence against land and environmental defenders shows a rise in the number of women and men killed over the last few years to 207 in Brazil especially. What’s more, Global Witness’s research has highlighted agribusiness including coffee, palm oil and banana plantations as the industry most associated with these attacks.

Therefore, corporate sponsored murders of indigenous environmental protectors are conveniently overlooked, increasing the kidnappings, torture and assassination of  key environmentalists. Consequently, illegal mining and logging activities are rising with corporate land grabs and violations of indigenous people’s rights to critical escalation Brazil and other countries that the Amazon basin covers, Ecuador, Peru and Colombia.

The Amazon rainforest is deadlier than ever for land and environmental defenders, with mining and oil industries and agribusiness, these industries are the most linked to murder of environmentalists and indigenous rainforest activists.

Many indigenous communities live solely off of the land, many live in isolated regions that are difficult to access, they are adept at survival from the bounty of nature and in tune with the spiritual elements that come with their connection and close relationship with nature, therefore most of these communities are not  in need of money or the materialistic  way of living that Westerners are used to, and this goes in their favour to be the world’s best and most trusted conservationists. Their lives depend on the preservation and conservation of their ancestral land, not on money. Their connection with the environment is not just dependent on daily living, it is part of their spiritual ancestry, their spiritual ecology, part of their souls and beating hearts. This is what we have forgotten in Western civilisation.

For these reasons, Indigenous people are the best conservationists to manage and conserve the forests and last great wildernesses, as their immediate survival depends on the land and they are attuned to the environment around them, because of this, they are also the most vulnerable when it comes to ecocide, their cultures and survival is ultimately threatened. Read  previous article People on the Edge of Extinction-The Last Tribes of the Amazon

There are indigenous conservation treaty recommendations supported by many Indian and Alaskan Native organisations. A recent convention set up by the Indigenous peoples of all the Americas allowed them to form sixteen principles for building a sustainable and harmonious world community.

These principles are rooted in the concerns of hundreds of Indigenous Elders, Spiritual Leaders and Community Members, they are also rooted in deep ecology values, they recognise the interconnection of all life on Earth and how we affect one another and the Earth with our actions. They recognise how humans must work on internal balance to create external balance and a sustainable world. They recognise the importance of morals, and ethics in communities. These guiding principles constitute the foundation for the process of healing and developing ourselves (mentally, emotionally, physically, and spiritually), our human relationships (personal, social, political, economic, and cultural) and our relationship with Mother Earth.

The senseless annihilation of the Earth’s last rainforests is part of an ecosystem, not only providing vital equilibrium for the climate but also plant medicines and foods and resources everyone takes for granted. Corporate ecocide has to stop along with the global unfolding ecocide of other ancient wildernesses where our great indigenous people remain.

All this senseless destruction of the Amazon rainforest, is for logging, gold, hydrodams and mostly for petroleum oil, the black life blood of Pacha Mama, Mother Earth, these resources are valued over human life and over the most essential biome of the Amazon rainforest, a major oxygen producer for all life on planet Earth. How many of us have to suffer and to what limit of destruction will this planet be pushed to, before we realise human consciousness is now an ecological issue? Humanity is a threat to itself unless we change the way we live on this planet, we have to live with nature, not separate from her, we are our environment, we are nature. Meanwhile there are solutions that we at Evolve to Ecology are working on to give more power and protection to indigenous communities in the Amazon with the Biobank Green Economy initiative.

by C S

Author of

The Silent Ecocide 

Surviving Depression in a Depressing World, an Ecological Perspective

Carlita is an independent environmental journalist and project developer who provides information overlooked by mainstream journalism funded by political agendas, since Carlita has worked closely with indigenous groups in Latin America for the last fifteen years.

 

Evolve to Ecology News

New Book-Surviving Depression in a Depressing World, An Ecological Perspective.

My new book is now published and available here in Paperback and Kindle
This book provides a fresh perspective on the exponential rise in depression and suicide in modern western society. It’s an alternative book for alternative people who  have tried conventional medicine or who aren’t interested in treating depression with allopathic options, and who are open to trying other options. Scientists have studied depression is in fact a normal response to a global environmental destruction, with growing scientific peer reviewed papers that confirm our degrading environment affects our mental health. There is an urgent need for humanity to reconnect with nature and change society to become more environmentally friendly. The author offers advice on how to manage depression better with nutritional advice and controversial health hacks, recommended lifestyle changes including learning the art of living after surviving grief, deep trauma, and loss.
The aim is to help the reader see their depression as a calling to look within, connect with their truer inner being and begin to nurture themselves spiritually, mentally and emotionally. Furthermore, this book invites the reader to consider their own place in human evolution and redefine their lost purpose to one that is more aligned to Ecology than to Western Materialism, to become self-empowered, not a victim of depression. We look at talk therapies and radical new alternative therapies for managing depression in a challenging world.
Contents-
Introduction
Poem-Faithful Black Dog
Chapter One- I am Not my Story
Poem-The Exiled Dissidents
Chapter Two-Corporate devolution vs Ecology
Poem-My Friend, My Shadow
Chapter Three-A Brief History of Depression
Poem-The Thief
Chapter Four- The Art of Living
Poem-The Heart’s Compass
Chapter Five- Gluten Free Living, Health the Gut, Heal the Mind
Poem-Patented Flower in a Planet Sized Laboratory
Chapter Six- Health Hacks to Avoid Inflammation and Depression
Poem-Beat Your Drum
Chapter Seven- A Look at Different Talk Therapies
Poem-Illusions of Polarities
Chapter Eight- The Therapeutic Benefits of Entheogens and CBD oil
Poem–Merging Galaxies
Chapter Nine- The Noosphere, Consciousness and Biosphere
Poem-Love
99951 word count
414 pages

by C S

Author of

The Silent Ecocide 

Surviving Depression in a Depressing World, an Ecological Perspective

Carlita is an independent environmental journalist and project developer who provides information overlooked by mainstream journalism funded by political agendas, since Carlita has worked closely with indigenous groups in Latin America for the last fifteen years.

 

Evolve to Ecology News

Surviving Depression in a Depressing World, an Ecological Perspective

Carlita is an environmental journalist, author, project developer, hypnotherapist and educator who wants to share her insights and experiences to benefit people living with autism, anxiety, trauma, severe depression and suicidal thoughts. Here she talks openly about her life and gives an ecological perspective in her up and coming book, ”Surviving Depression in a Depressing World, an ecological perspective”.

If you want to put your name on the email list to be notified when the book comes out, please email below at
thesilentecocide@gmail.com  and to receive  updates and learn more about the art of living in a depressing world!

Related articles

An Ecological Perspective on Depression

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The Silent Ecocide

The Benefits of using Full Spectrum CBD Oil

The first important biological aspect to understand about Cannabis Oil before dismissing it, is to understand why it is so beneficial to human health, the human body consists of a complex endocannabinoid system. We have endocannabinoids throughout our body. The latest research has given us a more in depth understanding of the endocannabinoid system, it consists of a group of enzymes, endogenous ligands and endocannabinoid receptors, not just in the brain but also in the body. Endocannabinoids are found throughout the nervous system, the heart, the gut, liver, pancreas, skin, reproductive system, and so on. Researchers have shown that disrupted endocannabinoid signalling indicates in the body are connected to many illnesses including diabetes, hypertension, infertility, liver disease and that’s only the tip of the iceberg.

This is an area of expanding research that is so vast, scientists are only just embarking on a deeper understanding about endocannabinoids and why they are in humans and other species of animals, as they are present in all vertebrate species, (Elphick and Egertová, 2005), which was a discovery only made 35 years ago when endocannabinoids were identified in a rats brain.

Therefore, it is only in the last ten years that substantial financial investments are becoming more ubiquitous in this rapidly growing field, hundreds of thousands of dollars are being paid into scientific research on endocannabinoids and the benefits and effects of Cannabis oil on human illnesses. This has led to the strengthening of testimonials with positive results, developing within both academic science, peer reviewed journals and the growing CBD oil industry in an area of natural medicine that is finally gathering academic respect and huge momentum. We are seeing more and more people consider its medicinal benefits after trying the usual allopathic medicine route, by those who choose cannabis as a serious therapeutic treatment and by doctors and scientists.

Endocannabinoids, cannabinoid receptors (primarily CB1 and CB2), and the enzymes that synthesize and degrade endocannabinoids are involved in brain function, body function and help regulate sleep, appetite, pain and reproduction. Basically, endocannabinoids are involved in receptor activity and the regulation of every physiological function in the body. We have been shaped by plant ecology, nature and evolution, when we understand our internal ecology and connect it to our past evolution, we can use plant medicine very effectively. We have everything we need in our environment as a form of natural medicine. We have evolved with endocannabinoids in our physiological make-up because we have used marijuana plants and other medicinal plants for as long as we have existed from apes, Ramapithecus Sivapithecus, to other early Bipedal Hominids and eventually, Homo Sapiens.

The main endocannabinoid receptor, CB1, was first discovered in a rat brain in the early 1980s and is now known to be among the most abundant G protein. Since then our scientific understanding is developing much deeper. Tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), is the primary psychoactive component of the cannabis plant, and produces psychoactive effects by engaging CB1 cannabinoid receptors. Its therapeutic effects are efficacious for multiple therapeutic indications and maladies, (Dhopeshwarkar A, 2014), (Grotenhermen and Müller-Vahl, 2012; Borgelt et al., 2013).

THC and CBN are able to fit like keys into the existing network of our body’s endocannabinoid receptors. Stimulating our internal endocannabinoid system with plant-based CBD restores balance and helps benefit our system. The compounds produced inside of the body, interact with these receptors. As many say, it’s like we were made for each other. Although there exists many types of endocannabinoids, one of the most widely known and studied is N-arachidonoylethanolamine (AEA). In humans, the CB1 receptor influences memory, learning and disease states associated with CB1 receptors are observed in addiction disorders, motor dysfunction, and in bipolar depression and anxiety disorders.

Moreover, aside from the brain, CB1 receptors also function in liver and adipose tissues, vascular as well as cardiac tissue, reproductive tissues and bone. (Howlette et al, 2010). CB1 is also present in the bone marrow, bone, brain, lungs, vascular system, muscles, gastrointestinal tract, reproductive organs, immune system, liver and pancreas, CB2 is also found in the spleen, bones, skin, immune system, liver, bone marrow and pancreas.

CB2 is also noted for its analgesic effects on pain. Endocannabinoids regulate cell function and stimulate regulation of pain, anti‐excitotoxic, anti‐inflammatory, and vasodilatory effects. Analgesia, the ability to supress pain, is the main therapeutic aspects of cannabinoids that interest scientists. Cannabinoid analgesia is based on the suppression of spinal and thalamic nociceptive neurons. The chronic pain that occasionally follows peripheral nerve injury is very different from inflammatory pain and is an area of considerable unmet therapeutic need in medicine.

Due to the expansion and deepening of research in endocannabinoids, scientists are making considerable progress in understanding the role of the endocannabinoids in the regulation of pain and its therapeutic effects on healing inflammation and cancer. We now have a growing scope of research on endocannabinoid analgesics in models of both acute and clinical pain such as inflammation and painful neuropathy.

Medicine has only recently discovered lymph cells present in the brain region, connected to the spinal area, we now know that immune problems directly affect the brain region and nervous system, which is interesting when looking at the beneficial effects of CBD oil on immune protection, inflammation and pain control. The framework for such analgesic effects exists in the CB receptors, which are found in areas of the nervous system important for pain processing and in immune cells that regulate the neuro‐immune interactions which in turn mediate the inflammatory hyperalgesia, (Zogopoulos et al, 2013).

Chronic inflammation is one of the precursors of depression and using Full Spectrum CBD oil is one of the best natural medicine options to address this since the compounds help stimulate our bodies own endocannabinoids and we can feel the benefits within ten minutes or so of using the medicine.

Personally, I find full spectrum CBD oil useful for combatting acute anxiety, I have Aspergers, which means I am on the autism spectrum, consequently, I have to deal with anxiety and depression on a daily basis, which is greatly reduced when I am taking CBD oil. I also use it to treat chronic inflammation and have various health benefits. I have tried a lot of different types of full spectrum CBD oil on the market, there can be problems with finding one that is of high quality and that preserves all the beneficial compounds, therefore one of the highest quality on the expanding market which I use is  Green Organics, Heart & Body Naturals   which is one of the most transparent CBD producers in this growing field, with laboratories that are using the most up to date, state of the art extraction equipment, that ensure no moulds or bacteria contaminate their products.
Additionally, HB Naturals take great care to preserve the full benefits of the plant extract properties including- Phytocannabinoids, Chlorophyll, Terpenes, and Omega 3, 6 and 9.

HB Naturals offer strengths varying from 500 mgs   to a 1000mgs, and they are one of the few companies that offer CBD strengths as high as 2,400mg. It comes as organic full spectrum hemp extract oil in 1-ounce bottle. This bottle can last around 2-3 months depending on your health regime and personal treatment requirements, I use it daily.

How to take it

You can take it orally, or in a smoothie or juice, or by using the ancient Ayurvedic way of the Pechoti intake method, place a few drops of oil on your finger and then apply topically to the belly button. At the end of an unborn baby’s umbilical cord is the Pechoti gland, and it stays there long after birth. In Ayurvedic medicine it is believed that every human has a Pechoti gland which is connected to more than 70 million nerves, tissues, and organs throughout the human body. So if you are using CBD oil or any type of therapeutic pure oil, this is a good way to deliver the medicine to let it absorb internally.

To take it orally, you only take 2-3 drops under the tongue in the morning and at night, not only is it better for us than popping synthetic pills, but more cost efficient also, treating the root cause of the health problem. I find it is also beneficial for depression and a myriad of illnesses from cancer, epilepsy, chronic pain, multiple sclerosis, alzheimer’s and any chronic inflammation related illness.

HB Naturals also produce CBD products for treating pets. HB Naturals produce other powerful high quality herbal extract products like Black Seed oilNigella sativa is also known as black cumin seed oil. Black Seed oil has a varied spectrum of chemical composition containing phytochemicals such as thymoquinone, crystalline nigellone, antioxidants, amino acids, proteins, carbohydrates, essential fatty acids, and minerals like calcium, iron, and potassium.

Black Seed has captured the attention of scientific research because it is like a powerful natural antibiotic that is resistant to microbe superbugs. It also has powerful anti-fungal properties compound against dermatophytes, molds and yeasts, due to its phytochemicals thymohydroquinone and thymol. Thymohydroquinone has been found to be beneficial to treating Alzheimer’s disease, Autism, Glaucoma and Parkinsons.

Some researchers have suggested that the endocannabinoid system plays a crucial role in cellular homeostasis. This means that the health of this system may be directly related to the health of the rest of the body, understanding this reflects how important the internal ecology of the human body is in relation to the evolutionary relationships between ourselves and our external environment, we have evolved with medicinal plants for thousands of years and there is an ecological and physiological relationship that has evolved as a result of our interaction with herbs and natural plant medicines that are still powerful healing gifts from nature for us to use.

In the course of our development, humankind has forgotten the most obvious and fundamental aspects of taking care of the human body, which means staying connected to Nature. We have become so far removed from Nature which is why even though we have all these technological advancements in science, industry and medicine, that we have seen a sharp increase in illnesses, new pathogens and diseases, it is a result of our biophobically disconnectedness from the Earth. Returning to Natural Plant Medicine is a way of reconnecting with nature, physically, mentally and emotionally. It is crucial we begin re-establishing our relationship with healing plants to gain the benefits on our mental and physical health and to restore our spiritual connectedness and relationship with the Earth. The energetic ecology of the internal body is profoundly connected to and reflected in the energetic ecology of the Earth and Universe.

by

Carlita Shaw

References for further research

Elphick MR, Egertová M. (2005) The phylogenetic distribution and evolutionary origins of endocannabinoid signalling. Handb Exp Pharmacol 168:283–297 [PubMed]

Howlett AC, Blume LC, Dalton GD. CB(1) cannabinoid receptors and their associated proteins. Curr Med Chem. 2010;17(14):1382-93. doi: 10.2174/092986710790980023. PMID: 20166926; PMCID: PMC3179980.

Dhopeshwarkar A, Mackie K. CB2 Cannabinoid receptors as a therapeutic target-what does the future hold?. Mol Pharmacol. 2014;86(4):430–437. doi:10.1124/mol.114.094649.

Grootenhermen F, Müller-Vahl K. (2012) The therapeutic potential of cannabis and cannabinoids. Dtsch Arztebl Int 109:495–501 (PMC).

Nicholas V. DiPatrizio and Kenny J. Simansky. (24 September 2008), Activating Parabrachial Cannabinoid CB1 Receptors Selectively Stimulates Feeding of Palatable Foods in Rats.Journal of neuroscience. 28 (39) 9702-9709

Panagiotis Zogopoulos, Ioanna Vasileiou Efstratios Patsouris Stamatios E. Theocharis. (2nd January, 2013). The role of endocannabinoids in pain modulation. Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology.

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